A tenth of annual income, set aside for religious purposes and validated by Jacob's vow at Bethel (Gen. 28: 22). In the second Temple the tithe was collected in the Temple to maintain the priesthood (Neh. 10: 37–8), but it was not always paid willingly or in full (Mal. 3: 8, 10). Before the Exile, however, kings had collected the tithe in kind (fruits and flocks) and stored some of it in the Temple (2 Chron. 31: 5–6). It would seem that the tithe was then a royal tax but that the kings used it to maintain the Temple. Jesus does not condemn the tithing practice of his own day, which Judaism continued, but he was censorious, as was Amos (4: 4) before him of those who put the duty of tithing over and above compassion and faith (Matt. 23: 23).