OT: People did not travel very far unless they were traders or soldiers. Sea journeys were repugnant to Israelites and roads were often no more than paths trodden down by cattle and pedestrians. Egyptians had wagons (drawn by oxen? Gen. 46: 5). Horses were available for armies (2 Kgs. 18: 23) and donkeys and camels for civilians.

NT: By the 1st cent. CE Roman government had transformed the opportunities for travel. Pirates had been driven off the seas, and roads had been constructed to link the main cities. Hence the journeys which Paul was able to plan (Rom. 15: 24), and the pilgrimages on foot to Jerusalem (Luke 2: 41 f.). Roman roads were paved and milestones (a godsend to modern archaeologists) recorded distances.