An anointing with oil: kings and priests were to be consecrated with oil (1 Sam. 10: 1 ff.; Lev. 8: 12). Healing with the use of oil is commended by James (5: 14–15). Messiah (‘Christ’) means ‘anointed’ and the fact that Christ was sent to be ‘anointed with the oil of gladness’ (Heb. 1: 9) for his Messianic work, and his reception of the Holy Spirit (Luke 4: 18), provided a model for the subsequent work of the Church which used rites of anointing for bestowal of the Spirit, as at ordinations.