Interest charged on a loan; Hebrews were not to charge interest on loans to needy Israelites (Exod. 22: 25) but it was permissible to take it from non-Israelites (Deut. 23: 20). Various humane regulations limited the rights of creditors: bailiffs could not thrust open the door and enter a house (Deut. 24: 10–11). But it is also true that legal safeguards were often ignored or violated (2 Kgs. 4: 1; Isa. 50: 1; Matt. 18: 25). The NT accepts the practice of banking as an ordinary, not in itself a reprehensible, part of life (Matt. 25: 27). Nevertheless the Church long forbade the practice of usury by Christians until it was relaxed by some of the Protestant Reformers. This led to the economic expansion and dominance of Northern Europe. The Pope reaffirmed the prohibition in 1745, but it was rescinded in the following century.