(354–430 CE),

born in Tagaste (in modern Algeria); after a life of dissipation and attachment to neoplatonism, influenced by Rom. 13 he became a Christian. As Bishop of Hippo his sermons and books were powerful and lasting expositions of Catholic doctrine in the West, but his exegesis of Rom. 5 became an influence on the Reformed theology of John Calvin. For Augustine, evil resides in human nature and is either itself sin or punishment for sin. He relies on Job 14: 4, John 3: 5, and Eph. 2: 3. The judgement of God will lead to an unending division between the saved and the damned predestined to an eternal death.