Mammals as distinct from birds or fish (Gen. 1: 30) either wild (as in Mark. 1: 13) or capable of being tamed; divided by the Jews into clean and unclean. In Dan. 7 the four great oppressing nations are symbolized by beasts, and this is taken over by Revelation where the beast from the abyss (sea) in 11: 7 is the anti-Christian power of Rome, indicated by the ‘seven hills’ of Rev. 17: 9. Mark 1: 13 may be pointing the contrast between Jesus, with whom the beasts are at peace, and the enmity and disruption which has prevailed from the time of Adam—a hint of paradise restored.