Although there was no lack of stone in Palestine, the surplus wealth and technical skills which existed in classical Greece of the 5th cent. BCE, and in the era of Alexander the Great, were not available to the Hebrews. Wood was used extensively, transported from Lebanon (1 Kgs. 5: 6 ff.).

Surveyors used measuring-lines (Ezek. 40: 3) and could check building progress with a plumb line. Foundation stones were important and were laid with great care, and it is not surprising that in the NT Christ is said to be the foundation or corner-stone of the Church (Eph. 2: 20, 1 Pet. 2: 7). For the Church is the building itself, though the metaphor changes in 2 Tim. 2: 19, where the Church is described as an immovable foundation. In yet another metaphor it resembles the pillar of a building; for it upholds the truth of God (1 Tim. 3: 15).