Worker in timber. Carpenters from abroad were employed in the building of Solomon's Temple (1 Kgs. 5: 6) but by the Exile there were Jews who had learnt the craft (Jer. 24: 1) and would be available for the restoration. Their tools are listed in Isa. 44: 13–17. Jesus worked as a carpenter (Mark 6: 3), and was the son of a carpenter (Matt. 13: 55), probably making agricultural implements. But in Talmudic sayings there is a noun for ‘carpenter’ which is a metaphor for a ‘learned man’, though it does not seem to be the meaning at Mark 6: 3. Sociological studies of the country put carpenters into the artisan class which formed 5 per cent of the population, below peasants but above beggars and day labourers. Probably they worked a strip of land, and carpentry was a part‐time occupation.