The seventh (or sixth, according to the Jewish reckoning, followed in Catholic Bibles) commandment (Exod. 20: 14) forbade adultery, and the prescribed penalty was death (Deut. 22: 22). The reference is not to any sort of extramarital sex but to that of a man having sex with a married woman, who is regarded as some other man's chattel. In the case of a betrothed virgin, she is to be stoned together with the man (Deut. 22: 23); but, if she is raped, the man alone is to be executed (Deut. 22: 25). Whether these ferocious penalties were ever carried out is uncertain; King David at any rate suffered only prophetic rebuke (2 Sam. 11: 4; 12: 9). The episode recorded in some MSS of John 8: 1–11 has a group of scribes and Pharisees testing Jesus' attitude to the Law: was he in favour of the full rigour of the Law being applied to a proven adulteress? The story may have been incorporated by chance into these MSS of John from some non-canonical work and though it may not be genuine reminiscence it has the authenticity of Jesus' compassionate teaching and his encouragement to start life anew (cf. Luke 13: 1–5). The OT condemnation is stretched even to mental attitudes in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5: 28)! Paul repeats the OT law (Rom. 13: 9), and elsewhere (e.g. Gal. 5: 19) it is presumably condemned under the general heading of ‘works of the flesh’.