Ruler of Babylonia, 550–529 BCE, and mentioned by the Greek historians Herodotus and Xenophon, and in the OT books of Daniel, Ezra, 1 and 2 Chronicles, and the second part of Isaiah. Cyrus' policy was to forestall rebellions among his subject peoples by lenient treatment. In accordance with this, he permitted Jews to return (Isa. 45: 1, 13) from exile and authorized the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 1: 1–2). He is even called ‘the anointed one’ (= ‘Messiah’) in Isa. 45: 1.