A very ancient city often mentioned in the Bible, and the capital of modern Syria. Attacks on Israel were launched by Aramaean kings reigning in Damascus, but the country was conquered by Assyria in 732 BCE.

The Romans again made Damascus a capital (of Nabataea) in 85 BCE and when Paul came into Damascus after his call to be an apostle (Acts 9: 2–30) the governor in charge was Aretas IV (2 Cor. 11: 32).