An Aramaic word for ‘father’. Jesus used it in prayer in Gethsemane (Mark 14: 36), and it is twice taken up by Paul as being an address used by Christians in prayer to God. It has been held that Abba represents an intimate form of speaking, especially by children speaking to fathers and corresponding to English ‘Daddy’. However, the evidence is rather that Abba was equally an adult form of speech and was probably not the only term that Jesus used. Paul shows that the Gentile churches sometimes prayed Abba but this does not necessarily mean they were quoting Jesus' prayer; the Gentile Churches also prayed Maranatha—Aramaic for ‘Lord, come!’—which was clearly not part of Jesus' prayer. Both Abba and Maranatha certainly do represent survivals into Paul's world of the early Aramaic speech of the Palestinian Church.