Aliens, or strangers sojourning in the land, were supposed to be treated generously (Exod. 22: 21; 23: 9). But neighbours across the borders were potential enemies. Antipathy to these states was increased by the reforms of Josiah (621 BCE); religious practices tainted by beliefs of alien nations were purged and intermarriage with non-Israelites was prohibited (Deut. 7: 3). This nationalism was intensified for some by the experience of the Babylonian Exile, but on the whole Judaism of the Return integrated with a variety of alien cultures which only a minority resisted.