In spite of the sense of a specially chosen people, foreign alliances were negotiated by Solomon (1 Kgs. 5: 1–12) and Ahab (1 Kgs. 16: 31). During Assyrian expansion both the northern and southern kingdoms made alliances to defend themselves, notwithstanding the opposition of the prophets (Isa. 20: 6; Jer. 2: 18) who urged the rulers to rely only on God. During the interval of independence under the Maccabees, there was an alliance with Rome (1 Macc. 8: 17).