the doctrine that the biblical materials are without error. In its strict form, as held, for instance, by Protestant fundamentalists, inerrancy includes the assertion that in the original manuscripts of the biblical books there are no errors of fact, whether theological, historical, or scientific. A more restrained version of the doctrine would claim that the Bible is an inerrant guide in matters of faith, but that it may contain historical errors or assertions that cannot be reconciled with present‐day science. Vatican II expressed it this way: “Therefore, since everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching firmly, faithfully, and without error that truth which God wanted put into the sacred writings for the sake of our salvation” (Document on Revelation, Dei Verbum, n. 11). The final phrase, “for the sake of our salvation”—that is, not for the sake of giving us historical or scientific information—establishes the limits of inerrancy.