“what is received,” i.e., matter handed to one. In the 12th century and later, however, kabbalah came to mean esoteric or in some sense mystical teaching. Kabbalah taught that God was inaccessible by direct experience, and could only be apprehended through emanations of the Godhead; Torah in kabba‐listic teaching had a hidden meaning, and meditation on texts was a method of ascent to a mystical vision.