(Arabic “speech, reason”) Islamic scholasticism, dating from the 8th century ce, a theology that developed in response to the rediscovery of Aristotelian philosophy in the Islamic world. The earliest proponents of this school were called Mutazilite (“separatist”) because they were seen as separate from orthodox Islamic teaching. The Kalam movement influenced both Karaite and rabbinic teaching, including among the latter the work of Saadia Gaon.