(lit. “Scripturists”; from Heb Miqraʾ) the theological movement in Judaism dating from Babylonia in the 8th century ce. Karaites claimed to be restoring an original form of Judaism from the Second Temple period, and were opposed by the rabbis of their time, particularly Saadia Gaon. Karaite calendars, festivals, dietary restrictions, and other practices differed in various ways from rabbinic norms. The movement reached its height around the 11th century though a small Karaite community is still in existence today in Israel.