(1534–1572) halakhic and kabbalistic teacher, active in Safed, Israel. Though he wrote little or nothing himself, his followers after his death produced a large amount of writing presenting his teaching, which basically stated the goal of all creation to be the gradual perfection of all realms, divine and human. This perfection was to be sought not just individually, but communally, and therefore fit with messianic expectations and other movements for renewal.