(1632–77) philosopher. Spinoza was born a Jew, but as his philosophy developed he became increasingly at odds with traditional Jewish teaching, and he was excommunicated at the age of 24. Besides his philosophical writings, Spinoza engaged in biblical criticism (see esp. his “Of the Interpretation of Scripture” in his Theological‐Political Tractate), and in some respects anticipated critical findings that did not become established until well after his death, including the assertion that someone other than Moses wrote the Torah.