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1 Chronicles: Chapter 1

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1Adam, Seth, Enosh; 2Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared; 3Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech; 4Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

5The descendants of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 6The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Diphath, a Or young and old and Togarmah. 7The descendants of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim. b Gen 10.3 Ripath; See Gk Vg

8The descendants of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 9The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 10Cush became the father of Nimrod; he was the first to be a mighty one on the earth.

11Egypt became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 12Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim, from whom the Philistines come. c Gen 10.4 Dodanim; See Syr Vg

13Canaan became the father of Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, 14and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 15the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 16the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.

17The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aram, Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech. d Heb Casluhim, from which the Philistines come, Caphtorim; See Am 9.7, Jer 47.4 18Arpachshad became the father of Shelah; and Shelah became the father of Eber. 19To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg (for in his days the earth was divided), and the name of his brother Joktan. 20Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22Ebal, Abimael, Sheba, 23Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the descendants of Joktan.

24Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah; 25Eber, Peleg, Reu; 26Serug, Nahor, Terah; 27Abram, that is, Abraham.

28The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ish mael. 29These are their genealogies: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael. 32The sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine: she bore Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. The sons of Jokshan: Sheba and Dedan. 33The sons of Midian: Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the descendants of Keturah.

34Abraham became the father of Isaac. The sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel. 35The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. 36The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zephi, Gatam, Kenaz, Timna, and Amalek. 37The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.

38The sons of Seir: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. 39The sons of Lotan: Hori and Homam; and Lotan's sister was Timna. 40The sons of Shobal: Alian, Manahath, Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. The sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. 41The sons of Anah: Dishon. The sons of Dishon: Hamran, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 42The sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Jaakan. a Mash in Gen 10.23 The sons of Dishan: b Or and Akan; see Gen 36.27 Uz and Aran.

43These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites: Bela son of Beor, whose city was called Dinhabah. 44When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah of Bozrah succeeded him. 45When Jobab died, Husham of the land of the Temanites succeeded him. 46When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, succeeded him; and the name of his city was Avith. 47When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah succeeded him. 48When Samlah died, Shaul c See 1.38: Heb Dishon of Rehoboth on the Euphrates succeeded him. 49When Shaul c See 1.38: Heb Dishon died, Baal‐hanan son of Achbor succeeded him. 50x‐When Baal‐hanan died, Hadad succeeded him; the name of his city was Pai, and his wife's name Mehetabel daughter of Matred, daughter of Me‐zahab. 51And Hadad died.

The clans d Or Saul of Edom were: clans d Or Saul Timna, Aliah, e Or chiefs Jetheth, 52Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 53Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 54Magdiel, and Iram; these are the clans d Or Saul of Edom.


a Or young and old

a Gen 10.3 Ripath; See Gk Vg

b Gen 10.4 Dodanim; See Syr Vg

c Heb Casluhim, from which the Philistines come, Caphtorim; See Am 9.7, Jer 47.4

d Mash in Gen 10.23

a Or and Akan; see Gen 36.27

b See 1.38: Heb Dishon

c Or Saul

d Or chiefs

Text Commentary view alone

1.1–22 . From the first person to Israel: a universal genealogy.

Drawing upon numerous lineages in Genesis, the author traces the development of and interrelationships among a variety of nations, ending with Israel—the focal point of his interest.

1–4 :

The ten names represent ten generations, beginning with Adam and ending with Noah. The Chronicler's tally is a marvel of condensation, having been culled from the much longer and more detailed narrative lineage of Adam in Gen 5.1–32 .

4 :

Each of Noah's three sons can be associated with a relatively large geographic area: Shem (peoples to the east of ancient Israel); Ham (peoples to the south and southwest); Japheth (peoples to the north and west). Although most modern scholars believe that Canaan was ethnically and linguistically Semitic, and thus should be descended from Shem, in the Hebrew Bible Canaan is descended from Ham, perhaps because of Canaan's long political relationship to Egypt.

1.5–23 : Descendants of Noah.

These verses are largely drawn from Gen 10.1–29 , the “Table of Nations,” which enumerates some seventy descendants of Noah's sons, symbolizing seventy peoples of the world. This creates both a genealogical tree and map by which all the world's nations are related to each other through a common ancestor, Noah.

5–7 :

The sons of Japheth include Anatolia (e.g., Togarmah, Tubal, Meshech), Asia Minor including Greek settlements (Javan), and islands in the Mediterranean Sea, such as Elishah (Cyprus), Kittim (Caphtor and other isles), and Rodanim (Rhodes).

5 :

Ham's children represent peoples and areas in the Egyptian political sphere: Cush to the south of Egypt (Sudan or Ethiopia), Egypt, Put to the west (Libya), and Canaan to the north.


These lists of Egypt's and Canaan's descendants closely follow Gen 10.13–18 .

11 :

Philistines, see Jer 47.4; Am 9.7 .

13–15 :

The sons of Canaan inhabit Sidon (the Phoenician coast) and include the traditional inhabitants of the land of Canaan (Heth [the Hittites] and those in v. 14 ), and those of coastal (Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites) and inland (Hamathites) Syria.

17 :

Located in Mesopotamia (Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad), Asia Minor (Lud and Meshech), Syria (Aram); others cannot be identified.

17–18 :

Although in v. 8 Canaan is descended from Ham, Eber, after whom the Hebrews (gentilic “ՙibri”) are named, is a descendant of Shem, indicating Israelite feelings of kinship to the Semitic peoples of the east.

19 :

The earth was divided, the Hebrew puns on Peleg's name, which is derived from a verb meaning “to divide, split.”

20 :

Joktan's descendants inhabit the Arabian peninsula.

1.24–27 : Shem's genealogy

is extracted from Gen 11.10–26 .

27 :

Abram, this begins the second major unit in the Chronicler's universal genealogy; the first was dominated by the descendants of Noah (1 Chr 1.4b–23 ).

28 :

For Isaac and Ishmael, the Chronicler fashions a very brief genealogy from narrative materials in Genesis (16.11; 17.18–19; 25.9). Ishmael is associated with the northern part of the Sinai peninsula and northwestern Arabia (Gen 16.10–12; 17.20; 21.13 ), as are the descendants of Keturah (vv. 32–33 ).

29–31 :

Drawn from the Ishmaelite genealogy in Gen 25.12–18 .

32–33 :

In the source text (Gen 25.1–13 ), Keturah appears as Abraham's second wife, taken sometime after the death of Sarah (Gen 25.1–3 ). The Chronicler's reference to her as a concubine may be based on his reading of Gen 25.1–2 in light of Gen 25.5–6 .

34–37 :

The genealogy of Sarah and Abraham draws upon Gen 25.19–26 and Gen 36.2–14 . The Chronicler always refers to Jacob as Israel (see Gen 32.22–32 ).

38–42 :

The sons of Seir, abridged and adapted from Gen 36.20–28 .

43–54 :

The lists of Edomite monarchs ( 1.43–51a ) and Edomite chieftains ( 1.51b–54 ) are adapted and slightly abridged from Gen 36.31–39 and Gen 36.40–43 , respectively. The Chronicler presents the history of Edom in capsule form up to the time of the inception of the Israelite monarchy, the beginning of his own narrative history (ch 10 ).

2.1–2 :

This list of Israel's descendants is the natural continuation of the progeny of Abraham ( 1.28–33 ) and Isaac ( 1.34–37 ) and serves as the introduction to the lineages of Israel's twelve sons, which follows in 2.3–9.1 .

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