The Remnant of Israel. 1 e 2 Cor 11, 22; Phil 3, 5 . f 1 Sm 12, 22; Ps 94, 14 . *I ask, then, has God rejected his people? Of course not! For I too am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 2God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the scripture says about Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel? 3 g 1 Kgs 19, 10.14. “Lord, they havekilled your prophets, they have torn down your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life.” 4 h 1 Kgs 19, 18 . But what is God's response to him? “I have left for myself seven thousand men who have not knelt to Baal.” 5 i 9, 27. So also at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace. 6 j 4, 4; Gal 3, 18 . But if by grace, it is no longer because of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace. 7 k 9, 31. What then? What Israel was seeking it did not attain, but the elect attained it; the rest were hardened, 8 l Dt 29, 3; Is 29, 10; Mt 13, 13–15; Acts 28, 26–27 . as it is written:
“God gave them a spirit of deep sleep, eyes that should not see and ears that should not hear, down to this very day.”
9 m Pss 69, 23–24; 35, 8 . And David says:
“Let their table become a snare and a trap, a stumbling block and a retribution for them; 10 let their eyes grow dim so that they may not see, and keep their backs bent forever.”
The Gentiles' Salvation. 11 n Acts 13, 46; 18, 6; 28, 28 / 10, 19; Dt 32, 21 . *Hence I ask, did they stumble so as to fall? Of course not! But through their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make them jealous. 12Now if their transgression is enrichment for the world, and if their diminished number is enrichment for the Gentiles, how much more their full number.
13 o 1, 5. Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I glory in my ministry 14in order to make my race jealous and thus save some of them. 15For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? 16 p Nm 15, 17–21; Ez 44, 30; Neh 10, 36–38 . * If the firstfruits are holy, so is the whole batch of dough; and if the root is holy, so are the branches.
17 q Eph 2, 11–19 . But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in their place and have come to share in the rich root of the olive tree, 18 r 1 Cor 1, 31 . do not boast against the branches. If you do boast, consider that you do not support the root; the root supports you. 19Indeed you will say, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 s 12, 16. That is so. They were broken off because of unbelief, but you are there because of faith. So do not become haughty, but stand in awe. 21 t 1 Cor 10, 12 . For if God did not spare the natural branches, [perhaps] he will not spare you either. 22 u Jn 15, 2.4; Heb 3, 14 . See, then, the kindness and severity of God: severity toward those who fell, but God's kindness to you, provided you remain in his kindness; otherwise you too will be cut off. 23 v 2 Cor 3, 16 . And they also, if they do not remain in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated one, how much more will they who belong to it by nature be grafted back into their own olive tree.
God's Irrevocable Call. 25 w PRv 3, 7 / 12, 16; Mk 13, 10; Lk 21, 24; Jn 10, 16 . *I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers, so that you will not become wise [in] your own estimation:a hardening has come upon Israel in part, until the full number of the Gentiles comes in, 26 x Mt 23, 39 . y Ps 14, 7; Is 59, 20–21 . and thus all Israel will be saved, as it is written:
“The deliverer will come out of Zion, he will turn away godlessness from Jacob; 27 z Is 27, 9; Jer 31, 33–34 . and this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.”
28 a 15, 8; 1 Thes 2, 15–16 . In respect to the gospel, they are enemies on your account; but in respect to election, they are beloved because of the patriarchs. 29 b 9, 6; Nm 23, 19; Is 54, 10 . For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.
Triumph of God's Mercy. 30 *Just as you once disobeyed God but have now received mercy because of their disobedience, 31so they have now disobeyed in order that, by virtue of the mercy shown to you, they too may [now] receive mercy. 32 c Gal 3, 22; 1 Tm 2, 4 . For God delivered all to disobedience, that he might have mercy upon all.
33 d Jb 11, 7–8; Ps 139, 6.17–18; WIs 17, 1; Is 55, 8–9 . * Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How inscrutable are his judgments and how unsearchable his ways!
34 e Jb 15, 8; WIs 9, 13; Is 40, 13; Jer 23, 18; 1 Cor 2, 11–16 . *“For who has known the mind of the Lord or who has been his counselor?” 35 f Jb 41, 3; Is 40, 14 . *“Or who has given him anything that he may be repaid?”36 g 1 Cor 8, 6; Col 1, 16–17 . For from him and through him and for him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.
i: 9, 27.
k: 9, 31.
o: 1, 5.
s: 12, 16.