(1857–1925),

architect,

engineer, and

surveyor.

Born in Zanesville, Ohio, Schumacher received his early education in Buffalo, New York. His father, Jakob, had emigrated from Tübingen, Germany, to the United States, together with other members of a religious sect called the Tempelgesellschaft. The family moved to Palestine In 1869 and settled in Haifa, where Jakob Schumacher worked as an architect and engineer. He designed most of Haifa's German Colony, as well as many buildings for the Christian communities in the Galilee. Gottlieb Schumacher finished high school in Haifa and studied engineering in Stuttgart from 1876 to 1881. He then returned to Haifa, where he soon became the leading figure in house and road construction. The Ottoman government promoted him to chief engineer of the province of Akko. Among the many buildings he designed are the Scottish hostels in Safed and Tiberias, the bridge over the Kishon River, the Russian hostel in Nazareth, and the wine cellars in Rishon Lezion.

Schumacher also carried out a survey of the Golan in order to determine the line for the railway to be built from Damascus to Haifa, and he constructed the extension of the mole in the port of Haifa. His surveys of the Golan, Hauran, and Ajlun stirred his interest in archaeological remains. He subsequently not only drew the map of Transjordan, published in ten sheets, but also recorded its ancient monuments and sites. Beginning In 1886 he published numerous articles about his discoveries, mainly in the Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. Between 1903 and 1905 Schumacher directed excavations at Megiddo, the first investigation of this important tell, on behalf of the Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palästinas. Even though field methods were in their infancy, he managed to establish eight levels of occupation. He published the results In 1908; a second volume, by Carl Watzinger, followed In 1929.

An outstanding architect and scholar, Schumacher was given an honorary Ph.D. by the University of Halle In 1893 and the title Königlicher Baurat by the king of Württemberg In 1904. After World War I he did not return to Haifa until 1924, where he died in his house on the Carmel.

[See also Ajlun; Golan; Megiddo; and the biography of Watzinger.]

Bibliography

  • Carmel, Alex. “Christen und Juden in Israel.” Die Neue Ordnung 5 (1988): 375–387.
  • Guthe, Hermann. “Zum Gedächtnis an Gottlieb Schumacher.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 49 (1926): 218–221.

Writings on Schumacher

Writings by Schumacher

  • Across the Jordan: Being an Exploration and Survey of Part of Hauran and Jaulan. New York, 1886.
  • The Jaulân. London, 1888.
  • Pella. London, 1888.
  • “Der Dscholan.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 9 (1886): 165–368.
  • Abila of the Decapolis. London, 1889.
  • “Der arabische Pflug.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 12 (1889): 157–166.
  • “Grabkammern bei Ḥaifā.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 13 (1890): 175–180.
  • “Das Jetzige Nazareth.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 13 (1890): 235–245.
  • Northern ῾Ajlûn, “within the Decapolis.” London, 1890.
  • “Von Tiberias zum Ḥūle- See.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 13 (1890): 65–75.
  • “Der Hiobstein, Sachrat Eijub, im Hauran.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 14 (1891): 142–147.
  • “Ergebnisse meiner Reise durch Ḥaurān, ῾Adschlün und Belḳā.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 16 (1893): 153–170.
  • “Es-Salṭ.” Zeitschrift des Deutchen Palästina-Vereins 18 (1895): 65–72.
  • “Madaba.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 18 (1895): 126–140.
  • “Das südliche Basan.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 20 (1897): 65–227.
  • “Ergäzungen zu meiner Karte des Dschōlān und westlichen Ḥaurān.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 22 (1899): 178–184.
  • “Dscherasch.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 25 (1902): 109–177.
  • Tell el-Mutesellim: Bericht über die 1903–1905. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1908–1929. (vol. 2 by Carl Watzinger).
  • “El-Maḳārin und der Tell ed-Dschamīd.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 36 (1913): 114–123.
  • “Unsere Arbeiten im Ostjordanland.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 36 (1913): 123–129; 37 (1914): 123–134, 260–266; 38 (1915): 136–148.
  • “Zur Verkehrsgeographie Palästinas.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 37 (1914): 55–58.

Volkmar Fritz