A large city 48 km. (30 miles) SW of Jerusalem, much fought over, which has yielded important discoveries to archaeologists. It was captured by Joshua (Josh. 10: 31 f.), rebuilt by Rehoboam according to the Chronicler (2 Chron. 11: 5 ff.), captured and destroyed by the Assyrians in 701 BCE (2 Kgs. 18: 14; 19: 8), and after having been rebuilt destroyed again by the Babylonians (588 BCE; Jer. 34: 7). After the Exile some of those returning settled in Lachish (Neh. 11: 30).
Among the archaeological finds at Lachish are the ‘Lachish Letters’, fragments of correspondence to the military commander at Lachish, written in black ink on potsherds in elegant Hebrew. They can be very accurately dated and they contain information about conditions in this fortified city and Judah during the time when the Babylonians were attacking both it and Jerusalem (Jer. 34: 7).