Luke's word for the scribes (Luke 11: 45), who gave themselves to meticulous and dedicated study of the law, written and oral. Many were Pharisees (Matt. 23: 13), but membership of that group was not essential to their professional legal qualifications. Those of Mark (2: 16) were probably Pharisees and had a sincere devotion to the Torah which led them to condemn those, including Jesus, who apparently fell short of their own standards.