Lions were not extinct in Palestine until the 14th cent. CE, and hunting them was a popular sport for the aristocracy (2 Sam. 23: 20) and an essential part of a shepherd's duty (1 Sam. 17: 34–6; Amos 3: 12). The lion answered his human enemies with special ferocity and therefore became a symbol for Satan (1 Pet. 5: 8). Parts of the lion's physique are ascribed to the apocalyptic beasts in Revelation (teeth, 9: 8; head, 9: 17; mouth, 13: 2; roaring, 10: 3).