A city in NE Greece named after Philip II of Macedon. It was refounded by Mark Antony as a Roman colony for veterans of the victorious army (41 BCE), augmented by further settlements in 31 BCE and governed as a Roman provincial municipality. The mixed population included Jews (Acts 16: 13). Converts were made by Paul, who paid several visits to the city and wrote his affectionate letter (54 CE). In about 125 CE a letter of Polycarp of Smyrna was written to the Church and is extant.