Hebrew for ‘Sayings of the Fathers’; and the earliest section of the Mishnah, the oral Law, put into written form in the middle of the 2nd cent. CE. There are resemblances between some of the sayings found in Pirqe Aboth with sayings of Ben Sirach in Ecclesiasticus. A verse in Pirqe Aboth (1: 2) is a fair summary of Ecclus.: ‘By three things the world is sustained: by the Law, the service in the Temple, and by deeds of loving‐kindness’.