‘the Elder’ (23–79 CE), author of many works, including a Natural History; he died when Vesuvius erupted over Pompeii. Pliny ‘the Younger’ (b. 61 CE) was the nephew of the former; as governor of Bithynia he wrote a celebrated letter in 110 CE to the emperor Trajan asking advice on how to deal with Christians in his province. He mentioned their morning worship of Christ ‘as a god’ and wondered whether their refusal to pray to the emperor's statue or to honour the pagan gods was treasonable. See peter, first epistle of.