The preparation of fibres. Before weaving could take place, fibres of wool, flax, or hair (of camels or goats) had to be washed, combed, and spun. A mass of fibres was first hooked on to a distaff (a wooden rod) and then drawn out as thread and attached to the spindle (Prov. 31: 19), which was wound on until the spindle could hold no more. Next, the spun yarn was woven on a loom by means of intersecting flexible material. The shuttle, formed in the shape of a boat, held the bobbin of weft thread and was passed through the space made by keeping the warp threads apart (Job 7: 6). Finally, the weaver had to push each new thread down against the existing fabric with a batten, and on an upright loom the web was woven from the top down, which would have been the case with the seamless tunic of Jesus (John 19: 23).

Weaving was done by both men and women (Exod. 35: 35; 36: 6; Acts 18: 2–3).