Roman emperor, 98–117 CE, and a successful soldier. Correspondence between him and Pliny the Younger has provided interesting evidence about the state of the Church in Asia Minor (the provinces of Bithynia and Pontus) in 111–12 CE. Pliny asks the emperor's advice on whether Christians are to be punished solely on grounds of professing the faith or whether only offences connected with religion are punishable; and whether continuing obstinacy merited execution. These enquiries correspond closely to the substance of 1 Peter 4: 12–16, and have persuaded some scholars that this epistle is to be given a date early in the 2nd cent. CE.