Zephaniah was one of the twelve Minor Prophets of the OT. He lived in the reign of Josiah (646–609 BCE) and may have been descended from King Hezekiah. He was one of those who was appalled by the apostasies of Manasseh (697–642 BCE). The message of his book is that Jerusalem should repent, urgently, and forsake idolatrous rites (Zeph. 1: 12). The coming day of the Lord will bring vengeance (1: 14–16), were verses taken up in the 13th-cent. Christian hymn Dies irae, dies illa. It will not be a day of defeat for Judah’s enemies but of war against the covenant people. Beginning in the city itself, battles will spread everywhere, devastating the people of Judah and foreign countries equally. The only hope lies in repentance (2: 3) and the small number who do will indeed be saved (2: 7, 9); Jerusalem will rejoice again and the Lord will exult as on a day of festival (3: 17), and the faithful will be vindicated—a post-exilic assurance, which gave hope to Jews of the future, dispersed throughout the world.