Stresses the relativity of thought. It rejects the project of maximizing human knowledge based on objectively valid foundations and other principles of the Enlightenment. All human knowledge is devalued as being human social construction. This led to the welcome given to post‐modernism by religious fundamentalists who see it as an ally in rejecting the historical‐critical study of the Bible. Thus, in biblical studies the content of a narrative is esteemed above any reference to historical evidence or theological doctrine; what matters is the impact, unadulterated by criticism, on the present reader. There is no essential difference between history and literature; ‘historical narratives are verbal fictions’.

An objection to such a view is that it opens the way to abuse; an individual reader could claim biblical authority for racism, sexism, or anti‐Semitism.