A German pastor whose encyclopaedic knowledge of the Talmud and midrash was used for a four-volume commentary on the NT, referred to as Strack–Billerbeck, though his collaborator H. L. Strack wrote only a small portion of the work. Since the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls, the commentary's use of rabbinic literature compiled between 200 and 500 CE is out of date and the work has lost its former authority.