A fringe group of Christians of Jewish descent. Paul's controversy with Jewish Christians expressed vehemently in Galatians did not spell the end of their way of life and thinking. After the Fall of Jerusalem (70 CE) Christians of similar outlook, Ebionites, were found in small numbers in Syria continuing to observe the Sabbath and other Jewish customs. The apocryphal gospel of the Hebrews, with a favourable account of James the Lord's brother (cf. Acts 15: 13–21), may have emanated from this circle. They were unpopular with Jews for being Christians and treated by Gentile Christians as heretics. However, the Christian Apologist Justin Martyr (about 150 CE) defended their way of life as being in line with that of the primitive Church at Jerusalem. Irenaeus the Church Father (about 190 CE) deplored their rejection of the tradition of the virgin birth of Jesus. The name, meaning ‘the poor’ in Hebrew, conveys reminiscences of Paul's references to the Jerusalem Christians (e.g. Rom. 15: 26) but the notion of Tertullian, around 200 CE, that they derived their name from a certain Ebion is improbable. Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, about 380 CE attacks the Ebionites for their heretical Christology. He quotes their gospel of the Hebrews which omits Jesus' birth and regards his baptism as the moment of divine initiative. ‘The Ebionites say that the Spirit, which is Christ, came into him and clothed him who was called Jesus.’ They are said to have used only the gospel of Matthew—presumably without its first two chapters.