A garment worn by priests in ancient Israel, apparently with numinous quality, for it aided access to the divine (Judg. 17: 5). David ordered the priest Abiathar to bring his ephod (1 Sam. 23: 9). It would appear to be the elaborate tunic described in Exod. 28: 39 and used not only in religious ritual but also for divination. The latter use would correspond to the occasions when decorative garments were put on the statues of Egyptian deities. Some references (e.g. 1 Sam. 21: 9) seem more naturally to refer to a piece of furniture than to a garment.