The withdrawing of the sacraments for grave offences. It is part of Catholic discipline and looks for NT sanction to words of Jesus reported in Matt. 18: 17 and to Paul's injunction in 1 Cor. 5: 2. There was a similar rule for the community at Qumran. For Paul, though exclusion was a necessity, sin was a matter for grief not complacency. At the time of the composition of the gospel of John, Christians were excommunicated by the authorities of the synagogue (John 9: 22; 12: 42).