Analogies, much employed in the Bible, are a means of reasoning by the use of parallel cases, and ‘analogy’ is therefore an umbrella term covering similes, metaphors, typology, and allegory. Thus Paul refers to Christ as a ‘rock’ (1 Cor. 10: 4), where he uses the account in Num. 20: 11 of the gushing of water out of a rock. The Jews of the 1st cent. CE believed that this supernatural rock somehow accompanied the Israelites on their journeyings through the wilderness together with the numinous cloud. So Paul applies this belief by analogy to Christ as the rock who gives life to his people. An analogy between sleep and death is found in 1 Thess. 5: 10.

For the medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas the concept of analogy was fundamental as being an intelligible means of referring to the relationships between God and mankind; there are attributes of God which are similar to but not identical with those of human beings, as when we talk of the love of God.