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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Editor in Chief: Donald B. Redford

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Featuring 600 original articles written by leading scholars, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt goes far beyond the records of archaeology to make available what we know about the full social, political, religious, cultural and artistic legacy of this 5,000 year civilization.

The Encyclopedia offers the most complete picture available of ancient Egyptian civilization, from the predynastic era to its eclipse in the seventh century CE. Here is the Egyptian world in illuminating, accessible detail: art, architecture, religion, language, literature, trade, politics, everyday social life and the culture of the court. Of special interest is the coverage of themes and issues that are particularly controversial—such as the new theories of the origins of complex society in the Nile Valley, new discoveries about Greco-Roman Egypt, and new developments in literature, religion, linguistics and other fields, including the debates about Egypt's African legacy.

Extensively illustrated with photographs, line drawings, and maps, the Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt is designed for the widest possible access, serving students, teachers, and scholars in fields ranging from Near East archaeology and classics to ancient art, architecture, history, language and religion, as well as general readers fascinated by a world that remains—even today— incompletely mapped.

Published by Oxford University Press, 2001.


Table of Contents

A – B | C – E | F – H | I – L | M – N | O – Q | R – S | T – Z

A – B

Abu Ghurob
Abu Rowash
Abu Simbel
Abusir
Abydos
Abydos List
Acacia
Achaemenids
Administration
Administrative Texts
Aegean
Afrocentrism
Afterlife
Agriculture
A-group
Ahmose
Ahmose-Nefertari
Akh
Akhenaten
Akhmim
Alabaster
Alexander
Alexandria
Allegory
Amarna, Tell El-
Amarna Letters
Amarna Period
Amasis
Amenemhat of Beni Hasan
Amenemhet I
Amenemhet III
Amenhotep, Son of Hapu
Amenhotpe I
Amenhotpe II
Amenhotpe III
Amethyst
Amphibians and Reptiles
Amratian Period
Amulets
Amun and Amun-Re
Anatolia
Ancestor Cults
Ancient Historians
Aniba
Animal Husbandry
Ankh
Ankhsheshonqy
Ankhtifi of Moʿalla
Annals
Anubis
Apis
Appeal To the Living
Apries
Archaeological and Research Institutions
Archaeology
Archaic Period
Archaism
Archery
Architecture
Armant
Art
Artists and Artisans
Asasif
Ashmunein
Assyria
Astrology
Astronomy
Aswan
Asyut
Ateliers
Aten
Atum
Autobiographies
Avaris
Ay
Ba
Badari
Badarian Period
Bakenrenef
Banquets
Barbering
Basketry, Matting, and Cordage
Bastet
Battle of Kadesh
Beards
Beauty
Beer
Bees and Honey
Beetles
Behbeit El-hagar
Beni Hasan
Bersheh
Bes
Biblical Tradition
Biographies
Birds
Birth
Bocchoris
Book of Going Forth By Day
Book of That Which Is In the Underworld
Book of the Dead
Bread
Breeding
Bricks and Brick Architecture
Bronze
Bronze Statuettes
Brother-sister Marriages
Bubastis
Buhen
Bull Gods
Burial Practices
Buto
Byblos

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C – E

Calcite
Calendars
Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days
Canaan
Canines
Canopic Jars and Chests
Captions
Carchemish
Carnelian
Carter, Howard
Cartography
Cartonnage
Cartouche
Cattle
Cenotaphs
Ceramics
Ceremonial Mace Heads
C-group
Chalcedony
Champollion, Jean-François
Chenoboskion
Cheops
Chephren
Childhood
Chronology and Periodization
Circumcision
Cities
Cleanliness
Cleopatra VII
Clothing and Personal Adornment
Coffins, Sarcophagi, and Cartonnages
Coffin Texts
Coinage
Color Symbolism
Consanguinous Marriages
Contendings of Horus and Seth
Copper
Coptic Literature
Copts
Coregency
Correspondence
Cosmetics
Cosmogonies
Costume
Creation Myths
Crete
Crime and Punishment
Crocodiles
Crowns
Cults
Curses
Cynopolis
Cyprus
Dabʿa, Tell Ed-
Dahshur
Dance
Dara
Death
Decipherment
Deformity
Deification
Deir Durunka
Deir El-bahri
Deir El-medina
Deities
Demons
Demotic Literature
Dendera
Dental Care
Desert Environments
Deserts
Destruction of Mankind
Diet
Diodoros
Diorite and Related Rocks
Diplomatic Marriages
Disease
Divinity
Divorce
Djoser
Domestication
Donkeys
Doomed Prince
Dra Abul Naga
Drama
Dream Books
Duamutef
Dwarves
Early Dynastic Period
Eastern Desert and Red Sea
Economy
Edfu
Education
Educational Institutions
Egyptian Blue
Egyptian King List
Egyptology
Egyptomania
Eighteenth Dynasty
Elephantine
Elephants
Elkab
Eloquent Peasant
Embalming
Encomia
Engineering
Enneads
Epigraphy
Epithets
Equines
Erotica
Esna
Ethics and Morality
Euphrates River
Execration Texts
Execution
Exodus

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F – H

Faience
Faiyum
False Door
Family
Fantastic Animals
Fate
Fauna
Feline Deities
Felines
Fertility
Festival Calendars
Festival Dramas
Festivals
Fifteenth Dynasty
Fifth Dynasty
First Intermediate Period
Fish
Flora
Flowers
Foreign Administration
Foreigners
Foreign Incursions
Forts and Garrisons
Foundation Deposits
Four Sons of Horus
Fourth Dynasty
Frogs
Fruits
Funerary Cones
Funerary Figurines
Funerary Literature
Funerary Ritual
Furniture
Games
Gardens
Gaza
Geb
Gebel Barkal
Gebelein
Gebel Es-silsila
Gems
Gender Roles
Geography
Geology
Gerzean Period
Gesture
Giraffes
Giza
Glass
Glassworking
Gnostic Texts
Goats
Gold
Graffiti
Grammar
Granite
Grid Systems
Hairstyles
Hammamat, Wadi
Hapy
Hardedef
Harem
Hares
Harkhuf
Harpokrates
Harwa
Hathor
Hatnub
Hatshepsut
Hawawish
Healing
Hedgehogs
Heliopolis
Heliopolitan Cosmogony
Hell
Hematite
Hemerologies
Herakleopolis
Herihor
Hermopolis
Hermopolitan Cosmogony
Herodotus
Hierakonpolis
Hippopotami
Historical Sources
Historiography
Hittites
Honey
Hordjedef
Horemheb
Horkhuf
Horoscopes
Horses
Horus
Houses
Humor and Satire
Hunting
Hygiene
Hyksos
Hymns
Ichneumon
Ihnasya El-medina
Ikhernofret
Illahun
Imhotep
Immortality
Imperialism
Inheritance
Insects
Insignias
Insinger Papyrus
Instruction of Ptahhotep
Instructions For Merikare
Instructions of a Man For His Son
Instructions of Amenemhet
Instructions of Amenemope
Instructions of Anii
Instructions of Hordjedef
Instructions of Kagemni
Instructions of Khety
Interpretation of Evidence
Intoxication
Inundation
Ipuwer
Iron
Irrigation
Isis
Islam and Ancient Egypt
Israel
Ivory
Jasper
Jerusalem
Jewelry
Joppa
Joseph
Journals
Jubilee
Judgment of the Dead
Justice

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I – K

Ka
Ka-chapel
Kadesh
Kamose
Kamutef
Karanis
Karnak
Kawa
Kemit
Kerma
Khaemwaset
Khafre
Khasekhemwy
Khefren
Kheops
Khnum
Khnumhotep II of Beni Hasan
Khokhah
Khonsu
Khufu
King Lists
Kingship
Kinship
Kiya
Kom Ombo
Kush
Kushite Period

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L – N

Lakes
Land and Soil
Landholding
Language
Lapis Lazuli
Late Period
Law
Leather
Leatherworking
Lebanon
Lebensmüde
Legitimation
Lepsius, Karl Richard
Letters
Letters To the Dead
Libya
Limestone
Lion
Lisht, El-
Literacy
Literature
Loan Words
Looms
Lotus
Lower Egypt
Luxor
Lyric
Maat
Magic
Malachite
Manetho
Manichaean Texts
Man Who Was Weary of Life
Markets
Marriage and Divorce
Maskhuta, Tell El-
Masks
Mastaba
Mathematics
Meat
Medamud
Medicine
Medinet Habu
Mediterranean Area
Megiddo
Meidum
Meir
Memphis
Memphite Theology
Mendes
Menes
Menkaure
Merenptah
Mereruka
Merikare
Merneith
Meroë
Mesopotamia
Middle Egypt
Middle Kingdom
Military
Milk
Min
Minerals
Mines
Mirgissa
Mirrors
Mitanni
Mnevis
Moʿalla
Models
Money
Monkeys and Baboons
Monotheism
Montu
Montuemhet
Montuhotep I, Nebhepetre
Moon
Mortuary Cult
Mortuary Literature
Mortuary Temple
Moses
Mummification
Museums
Music
Mut
Mut Precinct
Mycenae
Mythological Texts
Myths
Naga Ed-deir
Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi Codices and Related Texts
Names
Napata
Naqada
Naqada I
Naqada II
Naqada III
Narmer
Narratives
Natron
Natrun, Wadi
Natural Resources
Navy
Necho I
Necho II
Necropolis
Neferti
Nefertiti
Nefertum
Negative Confession
Neith
Neithhotep
Nekhen
Nektanebo
Nephthys
New Kingdom
Nile
Nine Bows
Nineteenth Dynasty
Nitokris
Nomarch
Nome
Nubia
Nun
Nurses
Nut

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O – Q

Oases
Obelisk
Offerings
Officials
Ogdoads
Oils and Fats
Old Kingdom
Onomastica
Opening of the Mouth
Opet Festival
Oracles
Oral Tradition
Osiris
Osorkon
Ostraca
Overseer of Priests
Oxyrhynchus
Painting
Palaces
Palermo Stone
Palettes
Palm
Pan-grave People
Papyrus
Papyrus Rylands IX
Papyrus Westcar
Paradise
Patriarchy
People
Pepinakht Heqaib
Pepy I
Pepy II
Perfume
Persia
Persian Period
Petamenophis
Petosiris
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders
Petuabastis
Pharaoh
Philadelphia
Philae
Phoenicia
Piety
Pigs
Piramesse
Pithom
Piya
Plutarch
Poetry
Polygamy
Portraiture
Pottery
Poultry
Predynastic Period
Prices and Payment
Priestesses
Priesthood
Property
Psammetichus
Psamtik I
Ptah
Ptolemaic Period
Punishment
Punt
Pygmies
Pylon
Pyramid
Pyramid Texts
Qantir
Qebehsenuef
Quarries and Mines
Quartzite
Qubbet El-hawa
Queens
Qurna

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R – S

Race
Ramesses I
Ramesses II
Ramesses III
Ramesses IV
Ramesses VI
Ramesses IX
Ramesses XI
Ramesses—Hattusilis Correspondence
Re and Re-horakhty
Rebirth
Redistribution
Reference Works
Rekhmire
Relief Sculpture
Religion
Reserve Heads
Rhinoceroses
Rifeh
Roman Occupation
Ropemaking
Rosetta Stone
Royal Cults
Royal Family
Royal Roles
Royal Tomb Painting
Sacred Animals
Sacred Barks
Sais
Saite Period
Sandstone
Saqqara
Sarcophagi
Satire
Scarabs
Scepters
Science
Scorpions
Scribes
Scripts
Sculpture
Seafaring
Seals and Sealings
Sea Peoples
Seasons
Second Intermediate Period
Sed Festival
Sedment
Sekhmet
Semna
Senenmut
Sennedjem
Senwosret I
Senwosret III
Sesostris
Seth
Setna Khaemwase Cycle
Sety I
Sety II
Seventeenth Dynasty
Sexuality
Shabaqa
Shabtis
Shadow
Shawabtis
Sheep and Goats
Shenoute
Sheshonq I
Ships and Shipbuilding
Shipwrecked Sailor
Shu
Shuppiluliumas
Siheil
Silver
Sinai
Sinuhe
Sistrum
Sixth Dynasty
Slaves
Snakes
Sneferu
Sobek
Sobekneferu
Social Stratification
Sokar
Somtutefnakht
Sothic Cycles
Soul
Sphinx
Sports
State
Statuary
Stelae
Stoneworking
Storage
Strabo
Sun
Symbols
Syria-palestine

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T – Z

Taboo
Taharqa
Taking of Joppa
Tanis
Taweret
Taxation
Technology and Engineering
Tefnut
Tell Ed-dabʿa
Tell El-amarna
Tell El-maskhuta
Tell El-yahudiyya
Temples
Teti
Textiles
Theban Necropolis
Thebes
Third Dynasty
Third Intermediate Period
Thirteenth Dynasty
Thirtieth Dynasty
Thirty-first Dynasty
Thoth
Thutmose I
Thutmose III
Thutmose IV
Tigris River
Time
Titulary
Tiye
Tod
Toiletries and Cosmetics
Tomb Robbery Papyri
Tombs
Tools
Trade and Markets
Transportation
Trees
Tuna El-gebel
Tura
Turin Canon
Turquoise
Tutankhamun
Twelfth Dynasty
Twentieth Dynasty
Twenty-fifth Dynasty
Twenty-sixth Dynasty
Two Brothers
Ugarit
Underworld
Upper Egypt
Ushebtis
Valley Festival
Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Queens
Vegetables
Vessels
Viceroy of Kush
Vizier
Vocabulary
Wealth
Weapons
Weaving, Looms, and Textiles
Wedjahorresne
Weights and Measures
Wenamun
Weni
Wepwawet
Western Desert
Wigs
Wilbour Papyrus
Wine
Wisdom Texts
Wisdom Tradition
Women
Wood
Woodworking
Work Force
Writing
X-group
Yahudiyya, Tell El-
Zodiac
Zoological Gardens

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