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Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman

Featuring 450 articles by an international community of 100 scholars, this renowned Encyclopedia is regarded by many as the definitive scholarly resource on what we know about the Dead Sea Scrolls—their history, relevance and meaning—as well as the controversies that surround them.

Discovered in 1947 by a Bedouin shepherd, the Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 800 manuscripts nearly one thousand years older than any other writings of the Hebrew Scriptures. Ever since, these mysterious documents have raised questions about the people who wrote them, early Christianity and Second Temple Judaism, and how they confirm or contradict the texts of the Bible.

Representing diverse traditions and fields of learning, this is the most comprehensive critical synthesis of current knowledge about the Dead Sea Scrolls. It covers the works in their historical, archaeological, linguistic, and religious contexts, explores the archaeological evidence, and explains the methods used to date, document, and preserve the manuscripts.

Published by Oxford University Press, 2000.


Table of Contents

A – C | D – G | H – K | L – O | P – S | T – Z | Index

A – C

Aaron
Abraham
Absalom, House of
Acts of a Greek King
Acts of the Apostles
Adam
Aemilius Scaurus, Marcus
Aeneid
Ages of Creation
Agriculture
Alexander Jannaeus
Allegro, John Marco
Alphabets
American Schools of Oriental Research
Amman Museum
Amram
Angels
Anointing
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Apocalyptic Texts
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
Apocryphal New Testament
Apostolic Constitutions
Apostolic Fathers
Arabia (Provincia Arabia)
Arabic
Aramaic
Aramaic Apocalypse
Archaeological Surveys
Archaeology
Architecture
Arugot, Naḥal
Assyria
Atonement
Azazel
Babatha
Babylon
Baillet, Maurice
Barkhi Nafshi
Bar Kokhba, Shim῾on
Bar Kokhba Revolt
Barthélemy, Dominique
Basketry
Baths and Baptism
Beatitudes
Ben Galgula, Yeshu῾a
Ben Sira, Book of
Berakhot
Biblical Chronology
Bibliothèque Nationale De France
Blessings and Curses
Boethusians
Bone Artifacts
Buqeia
Cairo Genizah
Calendars and Mishmarot
Canon
Carbon-14 Dating
Catena
Celibacy
Cemeteries
Chronicles, First and Second Books of
Churches
Cisterns and Reservoirs
Community Organization
Conservation
Contracts
Copper Scroll
Cosmetics
Court Tales
Covenant
Creation
Cross, Frank Moore
Crucifixion
Cynics

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D – G

Daliyeh, Wadi ed-
Damascus
Damascus Document
Daniel, Book of
David
Dead Sea
Death
Deeds of Sale
Demetrius III Eukerus
Demons
Department of Antiquities of Jordan
Determinism
Deuteronomy, Book of
De Vaux, Roland
Didache
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
Discovery and Purchase
Documentary Texts
Dualism
Dupont-Sommer, André
Early Christian Writings
Ebionites
École Biblique et Archéologique Française
Economic Life
Egypt
Egyptian Religion
῾Ein-El-Turabeh
῾Ein-Fara
῾Ein-Feshkha
῾Ein-Gedi
Elect of God
Elephantine Texts
Elijah
Elisha
Elkesaites
Encratites
Enoch
Enoch, Books of
Ephraim and Manasseh
Epicureans
Epiphanius
Eschatology
Essene Gate
Essenes
Esther, Book of
Eternal Life
Eternal Planting
Ethics
Exile
Exodus, Book of
Ezekiel, Book of
Ezra and Nehemiah, Books of
Family Life
Festivals
First Jewish Revolt
Five Scrolls
Florilegium
Genesis, Book of
Genesis, Commentary on
Genesis Apocryphon
Gentiles
Geography in the Documents
Ghweir, Wadi
Giants, Book of
Glassware
Gnosticism
God
Greco-Roman Guilds
Greece
Greek

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H – K

Hagu, Book Of
Hasideans
Hasmoneans
Ḥaverim
Healing
Heaven
Hebrew
Hebrews, Letter to the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hegesippus
Heikhalot Literature
Hellenism
Hemerobaptists
Herodian Rulers
Herodians
Herodium
Ḥever, Naḥal
High Priests
Hippolytus
Hodayot
Holy Congregation of Jerusalem
Horoscopes
Inkwells
Inscriptions
Interpretation of Scriptures
Interpreter of the Law
Isaiah, Book Of
Israel
Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Exploration Society
Jacob
James, Letter Of
Jeremiah, Book Of
Jerusalem
Jesus
Jewelry
Jewish Christians
Job, Book of
Job, Targum of
John, Gospel and Letters of
John Hyrcanus
John the Baptist
Jonathan (Hasmonean)
Jordan Valley
Joseph
Joseph, Apocryphon of
Josephus Flavius
Joshua, Book of
Jubilees, Book of
Judah
Judah, House Of
Jude, Letter Of
Judea
Judges, Book Of
Judicial Procedures
Kabbalah
Karaites
Kilns
Kings, First and Second Books of
Kingship
Kittim

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L – O

Languages
Latin
Law and Lawgiving
Leather Goods
Legal Works
Letters
Levi
Levi, Aramaic
Leviticus, Book Of
Liar
Licht, Jacob
Light and Darkness
Luke, Gospel Of
Machaerus
Mafjar, Wadi El-
Magharians
Magic and Magical Texts
Manasseh, King
Manichaeans
Mark, Gospel of
Marriage and Divorce
Masada
Matthew, Gospel of
Mazin, Khirbet
Meals
Media
Melchizedek
Messiahs
Messianic Apocalypse
Metal Utensils
Michael
Michmash, Naḥal
Midrashim
Milik, Józef T.
Millstones
Minor Prophets
Miqtsat Ma῾asei Ha-Torah
Miqva᾽ot
Mird, Khirbet
Miriam
Mishmar, Naḥal
Mishnah and Tosefta
Monasteries
Mosaics
Moses
Moses, Texts of
Murabba῾at, Wadi
Museums and Collections
Mysteries
Mystery
Mysticism
Nabatean
Names and Naming
Names of God
Naphtali, Testament of
Nar, Wadi En-
Nazoreans
New Jerusalem
New Testament
Noah
Noah, Texts of
Numbers, Book of
Numismatics
Oaths and Vows
Ordinances
Origen
Orthography

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P – S

Paleography
Palestine Archaeological Museum
Parthian Empire
Passover
Paul, Letters of
Peleg, House of
Persian Empire
Pesharim
Pesher Habakkuk
Pesher Hosea
Pesher Isaiah
Pesher Nahum
Pesher Psalms
Peter, Letters of
Pharisees
Philo Judaeus
Photography and Computer Imaging
Phylacteries and Mezuzot
Pliny the Elder
Poetry
Pottery
Prefects and Procurators
Priests
Prince of the Congregation
Prophecy
Proselytes
Proverbs, Book of
Psalms, Book of
Psalms, Hymns, and Prayers
Psalms Scroll
Pseudo-Clementine Literature
Ptolemies
Publication
Purity
Pythagoreans
Qahat
Q Source
Qumran
Qumran Community
Religious Beliefs, Qumran Sect
Repentance
Research Tools
Resurrection
Retribution
Revelation
Revelation, Book of
Revue De Qumrân
Reworked Pentateuch
Rewritten Bible
Righteousness
Ritual of Marriage
Rock of Zion
Roman Camps
Rome
Ro᾽sh Ha-Shanah
Rule of the Blessings
Rule of the Community
Rule of the Congregation
Rules
Sabbath
Sacrifice
Sadducees
Samaria
Samaritans
Samuel, Athanasius Yeshue
Samuel, First and Second Books of
Sanballat
Sapiential Work
Sarah
Scribal Practices
Scribes
Scriptorium
Scriptures
Scroll Reconstruction
Scrolls Research
Sdeir, Wadi
Secrecy
Sectarianism
Seekers After Smooth Things
Ṣe᾽elim, Naḥal
Seleucids
Septuagint
Serekh-Damascus
Shahin, Khalil Iskandar (Kando)
Shapira Fragments
Shavu῾ot
Shelamzion Alexandra
Shrine of the Book
Sicarii
Simon (Hasmonean)
Sin
Skehan, Patrick W.
Skeletal Remains
Slavery
Solomon
Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
Songs of the Sage
Sons of Dawn
Starcky, Jean
Stoneware
Strugnell, John
Study and Education
Suffering
Suffering Servant
Sukenik, Eleazar L.
Sukkot
Synagogues
Syria

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T – Z

Talmudim
Tanḥumin and Apocryphal Lamentations
Targumim
Teacher of Righteousness
Temple
Temple Scroll
Testaments
Testimonia
Textiles
Therapeutae
Throne
Tithing
Tobit, Book Of
Truth
Twelve Patriarchs, Testaments of the
Unidentified Fragments
Visions
Visitation, Day of
Warfare
War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness
Water Systems
Weapons
Wicked Priest
Wiles of the Wicked Woman
Wisdom Texts
Women
Wooden Artifacts
Words of the Luminaries
Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn
Worship, Qumran Sect
Writing Materials
Yadin, Yigael
Yohanah and his Brother
Yom Kippur
Zadok
Zadok, Sons Of
Zealots
Zoroastrianism

Index

Index of Document Names to Document Numbers
Provisional List of Documents from the Judean Desert
Synoptic Outline of Contents

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