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Ezekiel

Stephen L. Cook
Catherine N. McBurney Professor of Old Testament Language and Literature,
Virginia Theological Seminary

Course: Introduction to the Hebrew Prophets
Intended Audience: Undergradute or Divinity School
Syllabus Section: The Exilic Era and the Prophet Ezekiel

Guide to the Lesson Plans

As presented here, this lesson plan contains enough content to provide for at least four class sessions. The instructor is encouraged to adapt the plans to fit their own syllabus, using multiple lecture classes and breakout sections as appropriate. If there is less time and room in the syllabus, the instructor can omit parts three and four of the lesson. If the entire lesson plan is used, it may be appropriate to divide the material into four sessions: (1) an introduction to Ezekiel and the historical era of Babylonian ascension and Judean exile; (2) a consideration of Ezekiel's theological and ethical orientation in the context of the variety of prophetic theologies within the Hebrew Scriptures; (3) a survey of the priestly conceptions of purity and holiness that figure centrally in Ezekiel's priestly (Zadokite) worldview and theology, and in the Holiness School texts of the Pentateuch; and (4) an exploration of the place of prophets and priests within ancient Israel's social world and, in particular, of the origins and history of Ezekiel's Zadokite priestly house.

This lesson could be adapted for high school, college, and seminary students. High school instructors may wish to simplify the assigned reading, abbreviate the discussions of theology and ethics, and focus particularly on the Babylonian milieu, the place of prophets and priests in ancient society, and the challenges of engaging foreign and ancient cultural constructs, such as purity and holiness. Seminary instructors may wish to assign additional reading, include some analysis of the text in Hebrew, and emphasize discussion of theological interpretation of Ezekiel's book. As mentioned before, this lesson plan can be divided into four smaller lesson plans, each of which includes reading assignments, lecture points, class activities, and discussion questions. One can move through the plan chronologically or click through the contents below to navigate to a specific part of a plan.

Objectives

By completing these lessons, students will:

  1. understand the ancient historical and Near Eastern context and background of Ezekiel;
  2. gain a general introduction to the book of Ezekiel, including its place among the various biblical streams of theological tradition;
  3. explore in some detail the unique priestly (Zadokite) traditions, thinking, adn theology of the prophet Ezekiel and his book; and
  4. consider the place in society of Israelite prophets and priests, including an especially close look at the social role and provenance of Ezekiel and his forebears.

Outline of Lesson Plans

  • I. Ezekiel's Cultural and Historical Context: The Rise of Babylonia and Judah's Exilic Era

    • 1. Reading Assignments
    • 2. Dating of Ezekiel
    • 3. Historical and Geopolitical Background to Ezekiel
    • 4. Class Activity: Exilic Life in Babylonia
    • 5. Questions for Discussion
  • II. Introducing Ezekiel's Book: General Religious and Theological Perspective

    • 1. Reading Assignments
    • 2. Authorship of Ezekiel
    • 3. Structure of Ezekiel
    • 4. Ezekiel's Religious and Theological Traditions and Perspective
    • 5. Questions for Discussion
  • III. Priestly (Zadokite) Conceptions of Purity and Holiness

    • 1. Reading Assignments
    • 2. Ezekiel and the Holiness Writings
    • 3. Zadokite Conceptions of Purity and Holiness
    • 4. Questions for Discussion
  • IV. The Social Role and Provenance of Ezekiel and his Forebears

    • 1. Reading Assignments
    • 2. The Origins and History of Ezekiel's Zadokite Priestly House
    • 3. Questions for Discussion
  • Further Reading

I. Ezekiel's Cultural and Historical Context: The Rise of Babylonia and Judah's Exilic Era


1. Reading Assignments

The instructor should assign the combination of texts that will best suit the students' context:

  1. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible: Ezekiel; or (in shorter form) New Oxford Annotated Bible, Ezekiel: Introduction
  2. Oxford History of the Biblical World: Into Exile: The Final Decades of the Judean Monarchy (surveys Judah's history leading up to the two major deportations of exiles, such as Ezekiel, to Babylonia)
  3. Oxford History of the Biblical World: Into Exile: The Babylonian Exile: Continuity and Change (surveys exilic life outside of Judah in sixth century B.C.E.)
  4. Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East: Babylonians; Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible: Babylonian Chronicle (605‒594 B.C.E.) and Babylonian Tablet; Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East: Babylon and Babylon (constitutes various maps and images of interest illuminating Ezekiel's milieu)

2. Dating of Ezekiel

Ezekiel composed the core prophecies of his book in writing during the sixth century B.C.E. in Babylonia, where the prophet and other elite members of Judean society had been forcibly exiled. This forced migration of Judean leaders, officials, and priests from their homeland thus forms the historical context of the book. Ezekiel's book itself references the Babylonian subjugation of Judah in text such as Ezek 17:1‒24.

3. Historical and Geopolitical Background to Ezekiel

Following thier victory over the Egyptians at the battle of Carchemish in 605 B.C.E., the Babylonians extended their imperial control over Syria-Palestine, including the Israelite kingdom of Judah. Intent on throwing off the Babylonian yoke, Judah conspired with local nations to rebel. In response, the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar II (from 605‒562 B.C.E.) laid siege to Jerusalem in 597 B.C.E. and exiled the Judean King Jehoiachin along with many of the ruling class, including Ezekiel. Judah's determination to rebel continued under Jehoiachin's successor, King Zedekiah. In response to this continued resistance, Nebuchadnezzar's army destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 586 B.C.E., and exiled even more of the population to Babylonia. During the decade between the first and second deportations, Ezekiel indicted his fellow Judeans for severe ethical and ceremonial transgressions and prophesied Jerusalem's imminent destruction. After the city was razed in 586, Ezekiel's prophecies shifted markedly toward themes of salvation and reconstruction. Life in Babylonia during the prophet's career was manageable. The Babylonians settled the deportees near ruined cities in an attempt to develop unused land. Meanwhile other exiles were conscripted into military and other imperial services. The Murashu and Al Yahudu texts show that some exiles eventually prospered in the realms of agriculture, trading, and banking.

4. Class Activity: Exilic Life in Babylonia

  1. Have students read the poetic descriptions of the Babylonians in Habakkuk 1:6‒17. Consider the metaphors and imagery of the text in relation to the terrifying and disorienting experience of Ezekiel's compatriots as the enemy troops invaded Judah and commenced forced migrations of many inhabitants. Ask what images strike them as most expressive of individual and collective trauma. Ask them to elaborate on their answers.
  2. Have students look again at the image of the Ishtar Gate, included among the OBSO images referenced above in the reading assignment. Notice the rows of ancient bulls and dragons decorating the façade. Ask what message Nebuchadnezzar and his empire might be trying to convey by presenting ferocious beasts in such an ordered, regular pattern. Why present ideas of both ferocity and stable symmetry here on the city’s towering ceremonial entrance gateway?
  3. Note the use of King Jehoiachin's date of exile as a reference point in Ezek 1:2. Elicit conjectures from the students about what Jehoiachin's survival, pardon, and pension in Babylon might have meant to some Judean exiles. What hopes for the future of their home kingdom might it have inspired? Compare them with the hopeful note on which the books of Kings ends (2 Kings 25:27‒30).

5. Questions for Discussion

  1. What are some of our sources for reconstructing the history of the Babylonian exile? How much can and do we know about this crucial, transformative era of Israelite history?
  2. What do you make of Jeremiah's instructions to the Babylonian exiles in Jer 29:5‒7? Consider also the more pained and subversive perspective of the exiles in Ps 137. Are both of these depictions of exile realistic? Are they compatible?
  3. Relying on the OBSO readings assigned above, name some key examples of assimilation and cultural change that the exile engendered within the displaced Judeans. How well did the exiles maintain their ethnic identity?
  4. Examine and assess Ezekiel's dim view of the exiles' spiritual state in Ezek 13:17‒23 and Ezek 14:1‒11. Name some possible prospects and pitfalls in using such prophetic communications as a basis for an historical and cultural reconstruction of the exile.

II. Introducing Ezekiel's Book: General Religious and Theological Perspective


1. Reading Assignments

The instructor should assign the combination of texts that will best suit the students' context:

  1. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology: Ezekiel (surveys some key theological perspectives on and within Ezekiel’s book)
  2. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology: Prophets and Prophecy: Varieties of Biblical Prophetic Theologies (compares Ezekiel’s Zadokite theology with both the Sinai-oriented theology of Deuteronomy and Jeremiah and the "reverence" oriented theology of Second Isaiah and the Priestly Torah [PT] strand of the Pentateuch)
  3. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics: Ezekiel (surveys Ezekiel’s understandings of sin, judgment, restoration, and ethics)
  4. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology: Body: Hebrew Bible and Related Literature: The Body of God (introduces Ezekiel’s embodied, "incarnate" God, identifying Ezekiel’s view as one of several differing biblical understandings of the nature of God’s body, or bodies)

2. Authorship of Ezekiel

Ezekiel and his followers, who edited his book, were exiled Jerusalem priests who had undergone forced migration to Babylonia. Living in the deportee settlement of Tel-abib, his prophetic career stretched from 593 to at least 571 B.C.E. Since Ezekiel is a literary character within his own prophecies, his shocking and mystifying actions must often be interpreted in a highly symbolic and theological manner, not necessarily as a window into the prophet’s actual personality. The highly anthropomorphic traditions of Ezekiel’s particular Israelite priestly lineage emphasized God’s bodily dwelling of Jerusalem’s Temple, and the protection and sanctification that resulted from this divine inhabiting of Israel. Babylonia’s destruction of Jerusalem and God’s Temple directly challenged this theology, since it called into question God’s promises to dwell tangibly among the Israelites, transforming and ennobling them as their God (Exod 29:45‒46). Ezekiel answered these challenges with cosmic, eschatological, and apocalyptic visions of a rebuilt Israel that will fulfil God’s promises despite the fall of the earthly Jerusalem (see the OBSO notes on Ezek 1:22‒25,26‒28; 37:28; 38:12; 43:7; 48:35). In these visions, Ezekiel foreshadows later, more fully developed beliefs in the resurrection of the dead and the apocalyptic transformation of the world (see especially Dan 7‒12 and, in the New Testament, the book of Revelation).

3. Structure of Ezekiel

The texts of Ezekiel are complex, sometimes using bizarre or extreme imagery and elaborating it to an almost excessive point. They seek to convey God’s sovereignty, holiness, and mystery in words that come close to the limits of expression. Despite the complex content, the book’s overall organization and outline are straightforward. Chapters 1‒24 are set before the fall of Jerusalem to Babylonia in 586 B.C.E. and are largely prophecies of doom against the city and against Judah. An extended body of material on Ezekiel’s call to prophesy begins this section in Ezek 1‒3. Chapters 25‒32 are prophecies against foreign nations, forming a bridge between Ezekiel’s initial message of divine judgment and his ultimate message of salvation and restoration. The promises of hope come in the texts of Ezek 33‒48, dating from the time after Jerusalem’s fall. Jerusalem’s destruction in 586 was certainly the critical, transitional moment in Ezekiel’s prophetic career. The prophecies of restoration include an apocalyptic passage (Ezek 38‒39) and an extended utopian vision of a restored Temple and land (Ezek 40‒48).

Ezekiel’s book can be outlined as follows:

  1. Ezekiel 1:1‒3:27: The call of Ezekiel.
  2. Ezekiel 4:1‒24:27: Prophecies of doom against Judah and Jerusalem.
  3. Ezekiel 25:1‒32:32: Oracles against the nations.
  4. Ezekiel 33:1‒39:29: Prophecies of Israel’s restoration.
  5. Ezekiel 40:1‒48:35: Vision of a utopian Temple and Land.

4. Ezekiel’s Religious and Theological Traditions and Perspective

The religious and theological traditions of Ezekiel’s particular Israelite priestly lineage understand the relationship between God and Israel to be that of a vassal-covenant (see Lev 26:9,15,25). The covenantal agreement entailed divine guarantees on one side linked to specific responsibilities of Israel on the other side, with significant sanctions if the responsibilities of vassalage are not met. The idea of covenant helped Ezekiel interpret the exile, since it allowed for the possibility that defilement, injustice, and covenant infidelity on Israel’s part could lead to punishments, including Israel’s expulsion from the holy land, without annulling God’s eternal promises to His people (Lev 26:42). The land has fallen victim to defilement, Ezekiel pronounced, and God’s people have lost possession of it just as Lev 26 warned they would. Defiling any part of the land, God’s holy territory, constitutes an assault of impurity on God’s shrine (Lev 15:31; 19:30; 26:2; Num 5:3; 19:13; Ezek 8:6; 9:9). If the pollution of the sanctuary becomes willful and chronic, it will eventually force out God’s glory (Num 35:34; Ezek 10:19; 11:22‒23). Exposed to catastrophic judgment, the people become cut off (Ezek 37:11).

5. Questions for Discussion

  1. As the OBSO essays assigned above observe, Ezekiel wrestles with the respective roles in the salvation of Israel of (1) God’s divine initiative and (2) human responsibility and repentance. Does Ezekiel ultimately conclude that repentance and restoration are the sole work of God on Israel’s behalf? What are humans capable of and responsible for in their task of becoming right with themselves, their neighbors, and the universe?
  2. List some of the daring images of the divine body and God’s chariot throne contained in the vision of God in Ezek 1. Note how Ezekiel claims that God’s presence on the throne has a "likeness" or "semblance," which he attempts to describe: "the semblance of a human form" (Ezek 1:26). Discuss the contrast with Second Isaiah’s position that God has absolutely no semblance that can be likened to anything (Isa 40:18,25; 46:5). What might be at stake in these contrasting theological understandings?
  3. Have the students read and compare Lev 18:24‒28 and Ezek 36:16‒19. Ask them to reflect on the striking metaphors of queasiness, aversion, and repugnance in these texts. What are the prospective gains and risks in using such offensively vivid and visceral images? Do the metaphors in these texts effectively portray the holy land as a delicately balanced latticework of divine holiness and interactivity with humans, subject to overthrow through the spread of idolatry, uncleanness, and bloodshed? What ethical message is conveyed?
  4. As the assigned essays for the reading note, there are both similarities and differences in the respective covenantal theologies of Deuteronomy, Jeremiah, Leviticus, and Ezekiel. Name a few of the differences in emphasis and suggest possible theological and ethical strengths and weaknesses on both sides of the tensions.

III. The Priestly (Zadokite) Conceptions of Purity and Holiness, which Orient Ezekiel’s Book.


1. Reading Assignments

The instructor should assign the combination of texts that will best suit the students’ context:

  1. Jewish Study Bible: Concepts of Purity in the Bible (surveys conceptions of purity and holiness that figure centrally in Ezekiel’s priestly worldview and theology)
  2. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law: Holiness Code and Writings: The Contents and Special Concerns of the Holiness Writings (introduces the thinking and theology of the Holiness texts of the Pentateuch—texts upon which the most priestly of biblical prophetic books, Ezekiel, heavily depends)
  3. Jewish Study Bible: Concepts of Purity in the Bible: Ritual Impurity (elaborates on the biblical purity rules, which are highly significant in Ezekiel’s book)
  4. Jewish Study Bible: Concepts of Purity in the Bible: Moral Impurity (elaborates on moral impurity, which is central in the Holiness texts of the Pentateuch)

2. Ezekiel and the Holiness Writings

The language and laws of the priests and the traditions of the Jerusalem Temple heavily influenced Ezekiel. A significant body of these traditions, the Holiness Writings, can be found in the Pentateuch, extending beyond the confines of Lev 17‒26 (known as the "Holiness Code" or "Holiness Collection") to include other parts of the Pentateuch often identified as belonging to the Priestly (P) source. The Holiness Writings stress the unique sacredness of the people and land of Israel, in the midst of which dwells the glory of the Lord, God’s embodied presence. This sacredness includes not only ritual and worship, but also morality and social justice. The tangible dwelling of God’s glory in the Temple at the center of Israel brings sanctity to all people and groups arrayed around it. It means the realization of Lev 20‒26, where God proclaims: "You shall be holy to me; for I the Lord am holy, and I have separated you from the other peoples to be mine." Since Israel is so intimately associated with God in this theology, the people must constantly grow in personal and collective holiness through their interaction with the divine presence (Ezek 11:12; 20:12; 37:28; Lev 11:44‒45; 19:2; 20:7,26). God’s people, in Ezekiel’s ideal world, emulate the holiness of God that sojourns in their midst (Ezek 37:27; 43:9; cf. Exod 25:8; 29:45‒46; 40:34; Lev 26:11; Num 5:3; 35:34). From the midst of Israel, God radiates the divine holiness out to the entire land and to every sector of society (Ezek 37:28; cf. Exod 31:13; Lev 21:15,23; 22:32).

3. Zadokite Conceptions of Purity and Holiness

  1. As the OBSO essays assigned for reading observe, Israelites distinguished moral impurity (associated with grave sins such as robbery, incest, and murder) and ritual impurity (contact with birth, death, and genital discharges). If the latter category does not involve sinfulness, why did it bar an Israelite from encountering the Holy (e.g., entering the Temple precincts)?
  2. Modern readers of Ezekiel may have an easy time understanding and appreciating his antipathy toward moral impurities, such as robbery and murder. Appreciating his concerns over ritual impurity is more challenging. What are some respectful, or even appreciative, ways of understanding Ezekiel’s antipathy toward ritual impurities, such as contact with human feces (Ezek 4:14‒15), menstruation (Ezek 18:6), and corpses (Ezek 44:25‒27)?
  3. Drawing on the Holiness Writings of the Pentateuch, Ezekiel understands that ethical abominations bring about an impurity that morally defiles the individual Israelite (Lev 18:24), Israel’s territory (Lev 18:25; Ezek 36:17), and God’s central sanctuary (Lev 20:3; Ezek 5:11). This moral defilement, if unchecked, may have the gravest of consequences. Consider how Ezekiel’s book traces the movement of God’s Presence (NRSV: the "glory"; Ezek8:4; 9:3; 10:4; 10:18‒19; 10:22‒23; 11:22‒23; 43:1‒6; 44:4), and elaborate on how the prophet likely understands the meaning and progress of this movement in relation to holiness and moral defilement.

4. Questions for Discussion

  1. Name three or four of the seven important differences between moral and ritual impurity listed in the OBSO essays assigned for reading. Elaborate on their significance.
  2. How would you answer someone who insists that the Bible’s purity rules and dietary prohibitions are simply ancient (premodern) attempts to avoid health risks and prevent disease?
  3. How would you answer someone who insists that the Bible’s purity rules are essentially a patriarchal means of subordinating women and excluding them from Temple worship? More generally, what suggestions might you make to someone who vilifies Ezekiel’s book as a hopelessly patriarchal, or even misogynist, text?
  4. Since holiness can be a terrifying and dangerous thing (e.g., Ezek 1:28; 44:19), why does Ezekiel so value it? Why would Ezekiel argue that ritual purity is an insufficient goal for Israel, that Israel must press beyond purity into holiness?

IV. The Social Role and Provenance of Ezekiel and his Forebears


1. Reading Assignments

The instructor should assign the combination of texts that will best suit the students’ context:

  1. Oxford Study Bible: The Social World of the Old Testament: The Social World of Israelite Religion (summarizes the place of priestly groups in Israelite society, including Ezekiel’s group, the Zadokite priestly house that carried the concepts and rules of ritual and moral impurity that are so prominent in the Holiness texts of the Pentateuch; also touches on how the roles of priest and prophet may overlap, as they do in Ezekiel)
  2. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology: Prophets and Prophecy: The Prophets’ Milieu: Ancient Near Eastern, Social, and Historical Contexts (introduces the place of Israelite prophecy within its ancient historical and social context)
  3. Oxford Companion to the Bible: Zadok, Zadokites (cross-references the biblical texts on the origins and history of Ezekiel’s Zadokite priestly house)
  4. Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies: Priesthood, Temple(s), and Sacrifice: Ezekiel (introduces Ezekiel’s specific priesthood branch and its emphasis on a holy Temple, holy sacrifices, and a holy land of Israel that sanctifies and ennobles its inhabitants)

2. The Origins and History of Ezekiel’s Zadokite Priestly House

Ezekiel and his followers were Israelite Temple priests of the Zadokite branch, who especially treasured the priestly scriptures in the Pentateuch now identified as the Holiness Writings (or the HS, "Holiness School," strand). The idea that a great deal of the Holiness Writings corpus predates Ezekiel’s book, which draws heavily upon it, is now solidly established through the hard work of scholars such as Michael A. Lyons (2009) and Nathan MacDonald (2015). Who were the Zadokites, and what is the evidence for such a priestly house? Many North American scholars continue to find compelling the view that members of an Israelite priestly lineage identifying its founder as King David’s chief priest Zadok held high-status clerical positions at Jerusalem’s pre-exilic Temple throughout the monarchic era. The presiding role of these priests traces to Solomon’s elevation of Zadok after dismissing Abiathar, the other of David’s chief priests (2 Sam 20:25; 1 Kings 1:7‒8,41‒45; 2:26‒27). 1 Chr 6:50‒53; 24:31 trace Zadok’s ancestry to Eleazar, Aaron’s son. Can we be sure that there were such Zadokite priests presiding at the Temple? To begin answering this question, consider the bearers of the thinking and theology of Ezekiel and the Holiness Writings. Note how their thinking differs from the rest of the Pentateuch’s "P" material and from Isa 40‒66 on key theological essentials. Consider, for example, the fierce interaction between Ezek 44 and Isa 56 and 66. The intense dialog here is between groups of actual priests, not Levites (who hold altogether different assumptions; see Jer 33). The evidence fits the idea of two priestly houses in tension: Zadokites and Aaronides. Or again, consider Ezek 40:44‒46 and its solid witness to two groups of Israelite priests in dialogue and tension. The text assigns separate priest groups different chambers atop the utopian Temple’s inner "priests-only" terrace. Both groups of chamber occupants must be priests, not Levites. They are both so named (vv. 45, 46). So also, the Holiness Writings in Num 18:2‒5 bar Levites from the specific spheres of duty (Temple and altar) referenced here. Further, the utopian vision allows priests alone access to the Temple’s raised inner courtyard (Ezek 42:13‒14; 44:9‒13,19; 45:4; 46:2). Again, it appears that Ezek 40:44‒46 has in mind dual priestly houses, one of Zadokites and the other of Aaronides.

3. Questions for Discussion

  1. How would you answer someone who insists that matters of faith and theology have little or nothing to do with society and the social world?
  2. Older critical scholarship sharply distinguished between priests and prophets as very different ideal types. What stereotypes might have been operative here?
  3. More recent scholarly work sees no absolute gap between the role of prophet and that of priest. In your opinion, does Ezekiel successfully wear both mantels?
  4. Ezekiel’s book places Zadokite priests higher on the ladder of clerical hierarchy than Levites. Do you think this hierarchical ordering is basically a power play, elevating the Zadokites’ status and power? Why or why not? Suggest other possible interpretations.
  5. Consider how Ezekiel bars the Zadokites from inheriting and possessing land in the vision of Ezek 40:44‒48 (see 44:28‒30; Num 18:20‒24). Instead, their sole privilege, which actually endangers their lives (cf. Lev 10:6‒11), is Temple access. Given that holding land was usually the best road to power in Ezekiel’s social world, what might Ezekiel have been thinking?

Further Reading

Block, Daniel I. The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 1‒24. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

Block, Daniel I.The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 25‒48. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Joyce, Paul M. Ezekiel: A Commentary. LHBOTS 482. New York and London: T&T Clark, 2007.

Klawans, Jonathan. Impurity and Sin in Ancient Judaism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Knohl, Israel. The Sanctuary of Silence: The Priestly Torah and the Holiness School. Translated by Jackie Feldman and Peretz Rodman. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.

Lapsley, Jacqueline E. Can These Bones Live? The Problem of the Moral Self in the Book of Ezekiel. BZAW 301. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 2000.

Lyons, Michael A. From Law to Prophecy: Ezekiel’s Use of the Holiness Code. LHBOTS 507. New York: T&T Clark, 2009.

MacDonald, Nathan. Priestly Rule: Polemic and Biblical Interpretation in Ezekiel 44. BZAW 476. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2015.

Mein, A. R. Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile. Oxford Theological Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Renz, Thomas. The Rhetorical Function of the Book of Ezekiel. VTSup 76. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Sommer, Benjamin D. The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Tuell, Steven Shawn. Ezekiel. NIBCOT. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2009.

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